ビットコインとブロックチェーンの仕組みを図解で解説

 

この記事を書いた人

もふもふ
もふもふしたものをこよなく愛しているブロガーです。物理屋、研究開発者、不動産投資家、コンサルタント、経営者、Youtuber。やりたいと思ったことを思いっきり全力でやっています。

2018年1月、コインチェック問題が発生し、サラン仮想通貨の価格が暴落しました。そのため仮想通貨自体が下火になっていますが、仮想通貨とブロックチェーンの技術は革命的な技術だと考えています。

ブロックチェーンや仮想通貨は、分散処理していて安全だとか、改ざんできないとか、信頼性があるとか管理者がいなくても運用されているとか、いろいろとなメリットが解説されています。

でも、なんで仮想通貨やブロックチェーンが、そういうように安全で信頼性があるのか?実際に詳しく図示して開設されているのは少ないです。

この記事では、仮想通貨やブロックチェーンの仕組みをとことんわかりやすく解説し、どうして信頼性が高いのか、どうして安全なのかをわかりやすく解説しました。

仮想通貨とブロックチェーンの仕組みの解説

仮想通貨とブロックチェーンを一言でいうと、

仮想通貨を一言で表すと…
  • 通帳(ブロックチェーン)を世界中に公開
  • みんなで通帳を共有
  • 中朝の偽造は不可能
  • 問題を解いた人が通帳に書き込む

と考えています。

例えば、AさんがBさんに5ビットコインをあげたとしたら、「AさんからBさんに5ビットコイン」と通帳に書き込まれて、それが世界中から見れるようになるのです。

ブロックチェーンは、公開された通帳が暗号でつながっている

 

ブロックチェーンは、公開された通帳が暗号でつながっているイメージです。図のように、AさんからBさんに1ビットコインなどのやり取りが、すべてブロックチェーンに記載されています。

そして、ブロックとブロックは暗号でつながっている構造になっています。どこか1カ所でも改ざんしてしまうと、暗号が崩れて改ざんがバレてしまうという特徴があります。

仮想通貨とブロックチェーンの全体のイメージ

仮想通貨とブロックチェーンの全体のイメージは、図のようになっています。

仮想通貨とブロックチェーンのイメージ
  • ぺんぎんからネコに2ビットコインを渡す依頼を書ける
  • 依頼リストに依頼が書き込まれる
  • ビットコインのシステムから問題が出される
  • みんなが問題を解きまくる(マイニング)
  • 一番初めに答えを見つけた人に、12.5ビットコインの報酬が支払われる
  • 依頼リストをブロックチェーンに結合させる

というイメージです。ここから細かく解説していきます。

ビットコインの送金リストの解説

 

ペンギンからネコに2ビットコインをあげる依頼を出したら、依頼リストにその処理が載ります。依頼には手数料をくっつけることができて、手数料の高い順に処理されます。

依頼料0でも処理することは可能なのですが、混雑している場合など依頼に1日以上かかったりすることもあるそうです。もし処理を急いでいるのだったら、手数料を付けたほうがよいでしょう。

P2Pネットワークから、10分に1回くらいの感覚っで問題が出されます。その問題を、世界中の発掘者が問題を我先にと解くのです。一番初めに問題を解いた人が、12.5ビットコインと依頼リストの手数料を報酬として受け取ります。

問題の難易度は、10分に1回解けるくらいの難易度に自動で調整されています。もし発掘者が殺到したら、より問題が難しく調整されるのです。なので、発掘者が増えれば増えるほど、問題を解ける確率が下がってしまいます。

発掘者が問題を解くためには、計算機で大量の電気を消費して計算する必要があります。つまり、ビットコインを生成するには、電気が必要なので、電気を必要としているので、そのパワーを担保にしてビットコインの価格が担保されるというように考えられています。

ブロックチェーンの安全性

 

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